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Paut VIII. 




(Read at Axminster, 25tfi July, 1907.) 

[Reprinted from the Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, Literature, and Art. 1907,—xxxix. pp. e^-S63.] 




if £■» if If 

II I .ill*,!:?. 


Photo— Bedford, lemerh & Co. 

Great "West "Window, 

St. Margaret's Church, Westminster. 

The Gift of American Citizens. 


Part VIII. 


(Read at Axminster, 25th July, 1907.) 

[Reprinted from the Transactions of the Devonshire Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science, Literature, and Art. 1907.-j.xxix. pp. 242-263.'] 

" The last word said : 
He bowed the sorrows of his perfect head, 
And passed where never any troublous clays 
Shall touch him now, nor any blame nor praise ; 
But on the other side of Death's fair shore, 
He knows that dream of his is now a dream no more." 

Sir Rennell Rodd. 

The series of articles embraced under the heading of 
"Ealeghana," which have been brought under the notice 
of the members of this Association during the last few 
years, may be fittingly brought to a close with an account 
of various incidents which transpired subsequent to the 
execution of Sir Walter on October 29, 1618, and to which 
they, for the most part, bore an intimate relation. It is, 
however, necessary to make a few preliminary observations 
on some of the proceedings that took place during the 
previous twenty-four hours. 1 

1 Brief references to works quoted : — 

^ 01dys= « Life of Sir W. Ralegh," in ' < Works " (1829), Vol. I (first edition, 

" Works" (1829) = " Works of Sir W. Ralegh," Vols. II-VIII (1829). 

" D. A. '' = Transactions Devonshire Association. 

" Court," etc. = ' ' Court and Times of James I," by T. Birch (1849), 2 vols. 

"Brief Lives " = " Brief Lives," by John Aubrey (1898), 2 vols, (first 
edition, 1813). J * V 

Edwards = " Life of Sir W. Ralegh," by E. Edwards (1868), 2 vols. 

Gardiner = " History of England," by S. R. Gardiner, Vol. Ill (1883). 

"Arraignment, etc." = ' 'The Arraignment and Conviction of Sir W. R. . . . 
coppied by Sir Tho. Overbvry " (1648). 

Shirley = " Life of Sir W. Raleigh," by John Shirley (1677). 

Gosse= '•' Memoir of Sir W. Raleigh," by Edmund Gosse (1886). 

W T alcott= " Memorials of Westminster," by Rev. M. E. C. Walcott (1851). 



On Wednesday, October 28, Ralegh, then a prisoner in 
the Tower, " at eight o'clock in the morning was awaked out 
of a fit of a fever, with summons presently to appear at the 
king's bench bar at Westminster; and, soon after nine 
o'clock, he was, by writ of habeas corpus, brought thither " 
(Olclys, 550). On being then asked, " why execution should 
not be done upon him," he began to "justifie himself in his 
proceedings in the late voyage"; but he was stopped by 
the Lord Chief Justice, Sir H. Montague, who informed 
him, " there was no other matter there in question, but 
concerning the judgement of death, that formerly hath been 
given against him, The which the Kings pleasure was, upon 
some occasions best knowne to himself e, to have executed, unlesse 
he could shew good cause to the contrary!' 1 Called on to 
award execution against Ralegh, Foss remarks, " His address 
evidently showed his regret in being compelled to the 
performance of this duty, and its terms do credit to his 
humanity." 2 This formed a striking contrast to the brutality 
exhibited towards Ralegh at his trial in 1603. So deter- 
mined, however, was the King for Ralegh to be executed, 
that to avoid the numerous importunities for the death 
sentence not to be carried out, he left London for Hertford- 
shire before October 28, although the Royal Warrant for 
the execution bears that date, as " Witness ourself at West- 
minster." 3 

Although this document declares that Ralegh was to 
suffer death for having been indicted after trial of " divers 
high treasons," the date of that trial (1603) is not stated, 
nor is there any reason noted why the sentence remained in 
abeyance for fifteen years. One alteration in the mode 
of carrying it out is directed to be made; and in lieu 
of being "drawn, hanged and quartered according to the 
lawes and customes of this our Realme of England," the 
King's " pleasure is to have the head only of the said 
sir Walter Raleigh cut off at or within our palace of 

Of the extreme restlessness of the King at this period, 
Oldys gives the following graphic account : — 

"The king was all this while retired as it were, or at some 
remoteness from this tragical scene, ... as if he would have 
diverted himself, not only from the sight or report, but even the 
thoughts of it . . . very often in his boots, and hunting to and 

1 Appendix to the " Arraignment, etc.," 26. Italics not in the original. 

2 "Lives of the Judges " (1870), 450. 

3 A transcript of it is printed in OMvs' " Works " (1829), VIII, 773-4. 


fro ] sometimes at Theobalds, sometimes at Hampton-court ; not 
but he found time to dedicate his Meditations on the Lord's 
Prayer to his favourite Buckingham " (553-4). 

It is very doubtful whether these "Meditations" bene- 
fited either James or his protege. 1 

No day or time for carrying out the sentence is mentioned 
in the Koyal Warrant, but the indecent haste with which 
Ealegh was hurried to the scaffold within twenty-four hours 
of his sentence must be wholly attributed to the command 
of James, who, no doubt, felt that until the beheadal was 
effected there was no prospect of his son's alliance with the 
Spanish Infanta. 2 At the Council meeting on October 28 
the Attorney-General, Sir H. Yelverton, told Ealegh "he had 
lived like a star, and like a star must he fall, when it 
troubled the firmament. . . . His warning was short ; for he 
had no word to prepare himself for death, till that very 
morning he was convented before the judge." 3 

On " the eve of the blackest day in James's black reign," 4 
Sir Walter was removed for the night to the Gatehouse 
at Westminster ; and from thence next morning to a scaffold 
in Old Palace Yard. According to Aubrey, "the time 
of his execution was contrived to be on my Lord Mayer's 
day (viz. the day after St. Simon and Jude) 1618, 
That the pageants and fine shewes might drawe away the 
people from beholding the tragoedie of one of the gallant 
worthies that ever England bred." 5 The hour when the 
execution took place is unknown. A paper in the "Ash- 
molean MSS." (No. 830, s. 27), "written by Ashmole," 
affirms it was " betwixt the hower of five and sixe in the 
morning"; 6 but Shirley declares it was "about nine of the 
Clock" (223), and this is probably correct, as "at eight 
the officers came to fetch him away " from the Gatehouse. 7 

Notwithstanding the attraction of the city pageants, a 
large crowd was present at the execution, among whom 
were many notables and, it is believed, some of the leading 

The details of the execution, including the behaviour 

1 A curious paraphrase of the Lord's Prayer printed in " Xotes and 
-Queries," 1st Ser., V, 105, has been "ascribed to James I." 

2 Vide Buckingham's letter in "D.A.," XXXVIII, 464-5. 

3 Letter from Rev. T. Lorkin to Sir T. Puckering dated November 3, 
1618, in "Court, etc.. of James I," VI, I. 99. 

4 J. A. St. John, "Life of Sir W. Ralegh" (1862), II, 341. 

5 " Brief Lives," II, 189. 6 Black's "Catalogue," 491. 
7 Gardiner, III, 149. 


of Ealegh, his last speech, etc., are fully recorded in many 
works, and do not require to be repeated here. Suffice it to 
say that no more appropriate lines than those of Shake- 
speare could be adduced to express the gallant bearing of the 
great Elizabethan, during the last hour of his life, on that 
eventful day. 

" Cowards die many times before their deaths : 
The valiant never taste of death but once. 
Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, 
It seems to me most strange that men should fear ; 
Seeing that death, a necessary end, 
Will come, when it will come." 

"Julius Cresar," act ii. sc. 2. 

After the executioner had finished his office, Ealegh's 
" head was shewed on each side of the Scaffold, and then 
put into a red leather bag, and his wrought velvet gowne 
throwne over it, which was afterwards conveyed away in a 
mourning coach of his Laclyes." 2 As far as is yet known, 
this is the earliest printed record of what took place on 
that memorable occasion ; and as the account was probably 
written soon after the execution had taken place, it must 
have been in the memory of many who were living at that 
date (1648). This relation of the removal of her husband's 
head by Lady Ealegh, is printed verb, ct lit. in Shirley's 
work (237-8), and also in that by Oldys (564). 2 

There is no foundation for the statement by Mrs. Sinclair 
as to the dissevered " head being placed on Westminster 
Hall." 3 Once in the possession of Lady Ealegh, it remained 
in her keeping for the remainder of her life. Leaving the 
subject of the subsequent disposal of the head for the 
present, we pass on to consider the burial of Sir Walter's 

When Ealegh, after his trial at Winchester in December, 
1603, was found guilty and ordered to be executed — a 
sentence he expected to be carried speedily into effect — he 
wrote to his wife one of the most affecting letters known 
in the English language. Evidence of its great popularity is 
shown by its having been frequently reprinted ; the earliest 
occasion was in a separate form, and published in 1644, 
under the title of " To day a man, To morrow none : Or, 
Sir Walter Eawleighs Farewell to his Lady, &c." It is 

1 "Arraignment, etc.," 34. 

2 In "Notes and Queries," 10th Ser., I, 130, Oldys is mentioned, in 
error, as the earliest authority on the subject. 

3 History, etc., of the windows of St. Margaret's Church, Westminster 
(1895), 30. 


included in all editions of the "Remains" (1651 et seq.). 
It will be found in the "Arraignment" (1648), and even in 
the Appendix to such a work as " The Fatal Curiosity," by 
Lillo (1767). The following paragraph is transcribed from 
this letter: "Beg my dead body which living was denyed 
you, and either lay it in Sherborne (if the land continue) 
or in Exeter Church by my father and mother." The portion 
in brackets is taken from Sloane MS. The rest of the 
extract from " To day, etc." (1644). 1 Neither of these wishes 
could be carried out : Sherborne had been wrested from him 
some years before his beheadal in 1618, and " Exeter 
Church" — not the cathedral, but the church of St. Mary 
Major (vide "D.A.," XXVIII, 291) — was too far away. 
In the last interview Ralegh had with his wife, on the night 
previous to his execution, she " told him she had obtained 
the disposing of his body. To which he answered, smiling, 
1 It is well, Besse, that thou mayest dispose of that dead, 
that hadst not the disposing of it when it was alive.' " 2 
This evidently referred to the subsequent burial of his 
remains, as expressed, a few hours later, in a remarkable 
letter to her brother, Sir Nicholas Carew, as recorded in the 
following transcript : — 

" I desiar, good brother, that you will be pleased to let me berri 
the worthi boddi of my nobell hosban, Sur Walter Ralegh, in 
your chorche at Beddington, wher I desiar to be berred. The 
Lordes have geven me his ded boddi, thought [sic] they denied 
me his life. This nit hee shall be brought you ith two or three 
of my men. Let me here presently. God hold me in my wites. 


Addressed: "To my best brother, Sur Nicholas Carew, 
at^ Beddington." 3 According to C. R. B. Barrett, 4 "The 
original ... is amongst t£e Lambert family papers," 
at G-arratt's Hall, Banstead ; but there is greater reason to 
believe it to be only an early copy, with some variations in 
the word-spelling. Unfortunately this letter is undated; 
it however proves the ardent desire of Lady Ralegh for 
the interment to take place at Beddington, and that, at the 
time she wrote it, either she had actual possession of the 
body, or had relied upon the promise made that it would be 

1 Cf. Edwards II, 287. 

2 Letter from Chamberlain to Carleton, November 7, 1618, in "Court, 
etc., of James I," II, 104 ; from " S. P. Dom.," James I, CIII, 73. 

3 "As printed from the Original (?) by Manning and Bray, 'History of 
Surrey,' Vol. II, p. 495|," in Edwards II, 413. 

4 " Surrey Highways, etc." (1895), 239. 


surrendered to her. The latter is the more probable. The 
expression in the letter to her brother, "The Lordes have 
geven me his ded boddi," has been generally accepted in 
proof she had it in her possession after the execution ; but 
this was simply a reiteration of the remark she made to 
her husband at their last interview ; " she told him she had 
obtained the disposing of his body." This was recorded 
within ten days of the execution by one who could have 
known nothing of Lady Ralegh's letter. 

Some authors aver the head to have been deposited in 
a red leather bag, and then, after the body had been 
wrapped in his " cloak," or " velvet gown," both were con- 
veyed in a coach to her house. 1 This view is also enter- 
tained by Edwards (I, 706), who suggests the letter to have 
been penned on October 30 (?) (II, 413). If, however, the 
present epitaph (vide photo illustration) be correct, the body 
had been interred "on the day he was beheaded" (October 29). 
That it was buried in St. Margaret's Church, Westminster, 
is proved by the entry in the burial register, from 
which the accompanying facsimile (photo print) has been 
taken. 2 The entry in the burial register, as shown in the 
accompanying facsimile, records the month, but not the day, 
of the interment. As, however, only two days intervened 
between the day of the execution and November 1, and 
three other entries after that of Ralegh, it seems more 
probable that the burial took place on the same day as the 
beheadal, although Edwards (II, 417) suggests it was on 
the following day. This entry is undated, but it is the last 
save three that was made in that month (October). The 
following paragraph in Aubrey's work throws no additional 
light upon it: "In the register ... in the moneth of 
October, Sir Walter Raleigh is entred, and is the last of 
that moneth, but no dayes of the moneth are sett downe, 
so that he being beheaded on the Lord Mayer's day, was 
bury ed the . . ." 3 This extract seems to imply that the 
interment did not take place on the day of the beheadal, but 
on one of the two succeeding days. It is noteworthy that in 
his " Extracts from the Parish Registers " of the church, the 
Rev. M. E. C. Walcott should have omitted Sir Walter's 
name from the list. Edwards remarks : " Nothing, I believe, 
is now known of the causes which led to the interment of Sir 

1 " Life of Ralegh," by C. K. True (1881), 204 ; Gosse, 222. 

2 For this, as well as for the one relating to the entry of Sir Walter's son, 
Carew, the writer is indebted to the kind offices of the rector, the Rev. Canon 
H. Henson. » "Brief Lives," II, 190. 



-• J 

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Walter Raleigh in St. Margaret's Church . . . instead of at 
Beddington" (II, 413). That some powerful cause had 
operated to bring about the alteration is certain, although 
none is alluded to by any of the leading authorities; and 
yet a consideration of the following remarks may afford 
a clue to the probable explanation. 

Popular feeling had shown itself opposed to the whole of 
the proceedings which had been instituted against Ralegh 
from the time he landed after his last expedition. It was 
exhibited towards Sir "Judas" Stukeley, who, in his 
" Appollogie," written a few weeks only after Ralegh 
reached England, complained, " I haue bine accused for con- 
spiracy and falshood towards him." 1 But when an inde- 
cently hurried execution was ordered to take place within a 
few hours of the sentence, and was carried out on a day 
when it was thought that the pageantry at the east end of 
the city would draw off a large crowd, who would otherwise 
have been present at Old Palace Yard, the authorities soon 
discovered the public feeling against all who had taken part 
in the final act to be of too angry and grave a character to 
be neglected. They would be forced to the conclusion that 
to allow the headless trunk to be removed to its Surrey 
resting-place would be an extremely hazardous proceeding, 
and might lead to a popular outbreak. As the only means 
to avert any such movement, they hastened (whether at 
that time in the possession of Lady Ralegh or not) to have 
the body "buryed privately" 2 and without delay in the 
church of St. Margaret. There was no apparent reason this 
church should be selected in preference to any other, except 
that it happened to be the nearest to the place of execution. 
That the public indignation increased as time went on 
appears to be corroborated by the circumstance of the great 
hurry of the King and Court party to publish a hastily 
conceived and printed " Declaration," a month after Ralegh's 
death, in justification of their proceedings, 3 but which the 
public refused to accept as such, regarding it as an 
" Apology," especially as it omitted all reference to the real 
cause why Ralegh was sacrificed, viz. to please the Spanish 

The foregoing remarks favour the view expressed in the 
memoir of Ralegh in the " D.IST.B." (in which the present 
writer fully agrees), that the burial of her husband's body 

1 " D. A.," XXXVII, 311. 2 " Brief Lives," II, 189. 

3 In " D.A.," XXXVIII, 410 et seq., there is a full analysis of this docu- 


in St. Margaret's Church took place " in spite of Lady 
Ralegh's wish that he should be buried at Beddington." It 
is, indeed, very doubtful whether, at any time after the 
execution, she ever had personal (actual) possession of it. 

We may here briefly enumerate some of the places noted 
(in error) by writers as the burial place of Ralegh. Accord- 
ing to Aubrey, " The bishop of Sarum (Seth Ward) saieth 
that Sir Walter Raleigh lyes interred in St. Marie's church 
at Exon, not the cathedral" (II, 193); the Bishop evidently 
mistook the grave of the father for that of the son. 1 Then 
in Brayley and Britton's " Surrey," Lady Ralegh's letter 
is relied on for believing the burial was at Beddington 
(II, 94), while Lord De Ros, in his description of St. Peter's 
Chapel in the Tower, affirms, "In James I's reign, Sir 
W. Raleigh here found rest after his life of vicissitude and 
trouble." 2 

There is some doubt as to the precise spot in the chancel 
of St. Margaret's Church where the remains of Ralegh were 
deposited. Ashmole informed Aubrey, " He was buryed as 
soon as you are removed from the top of the steps towards 
the altar, not under the altar" (II, 190). From another 
authority (noted on the preceding page) he heard they were 
" Buryed privately under the high alter ... in which grave 
(or neer) lies James Harrington, esq., author of ' Oceana.' " 
Of the latter Aubrey remarks, "[James Harrington] lyes 
buried in the chancell . . . the next grave to the illustrious 
Sir Walter Raleigh, under the south side of the altar where 
the priest stands " (II, 193). His memorial tablet was " for- 
merly, according to Bishop Kennet, ' within the communion 
rails.'" 3 

The Rev. S. Kirschbaum (formerly one of the curates of 
the church) informed the writer, " the tradition is that Sir 
Walter Raleigh was buried in the great vault under the 
chancel." Although Aubrey recorded the gossip he heard 
from various sources, he never seemed to verity or to com- 
ment upon it. Nevertheless, from the foregoing statements, 
we may reasonably conclude that Sir Walter was buried 
near to, and probably on the south side of, the altar. 

We pass on to endeavour to answer the question, " What 
became of Sir Walter's head?" Within ten days of the 
execution, Chamberlain, in a letter to Carleton, dated 
7 November, declared that " the body and head were buried 

1 "D.A.," XXVIII, 291. 

2 " Memorials of the Tower of London" (1867), 30. 

;! Walcott, 143. In Wood's works is a copy of its original inscription. 






CO £ 



together " in St. Margaret's Church. 1 J. A. St. John states 
that Lady Ralegh, " who certainly embalmed her husband's 
head, performed the same office also for the whole body, and 
kept' them near her through life" (II, 350). According to 
another "popular tradition," the head "was brought to 
Devonshire by his widow, and buried under the incised slab 
at East Budleigh Church, which covers the remains of Joan, 
the first wife of Sir Walter's father." 2 These and the two 
following are simply idle tales unworthy to be called tradi- 
tions, and without a vestige of truth, as far as Sir W. 
Ealegh was concerned. A correspondent in the "Gentleman's 
Magazine " (1790), 420, relates that beneath a stone pave- 
ment in a room, formerly a chapel, at West Horsley, there 
was "discovered an earthen pot or urn, in which it was 
supposed the bowels of Sir Walter Raleigh were contained." 
Then in "Notes and Queries" (2nd Ser., V, 11) a contri- 
butor asserts that Sir Walter's son Carew 

"Is said to have had it [his father's head] interred with hirn at 
[West] Horsley. In 1703 a head was dug up in that churchyard, 
from the side of a grave where a Carew Raleigh was buried, there 
being no bones of a body, not room for any, the rest of that side 
of the grave being firm chalk. An embalmed heart was also 
found under the floor of a room at Horsley which had once been 
a chapel." 

Although not stated, the source of this information was 
evidently derived from a foot-note at page 565 of Oldys' 
work, first published in 1736. The last portion of this 
quotation is not taken from Oldys' work, but was apparently 
copied from the "Gentleman's Magazine," the asserted 
" embalmed heart " of Sir Walter being substituted for his 
" bowels " ! That author mentions it as a tradition, and was 
opposed to his own statement on a previous page that the 
body "was buried ... in the chancel of St. Margaret's 
Church, near the altar." 

After the death of her husband we hear very little about 
his " dear Besse." His head " was long preserved in a case," 
remarks Oldys, " for she survived him twenty-nine years. 
The same writer remarks, " I have found by some anecdotes 
remaining in the family" (564). In what he thought at 
the time was his last letter to her in 1603, he advised her to 
marry again after his decease, 3 but, faithful to his memory, 

1 "S. P. Dom.," James I, GUI, 73. 

2 P. O. Hutchinson, "Jour, of Archceol. Inst.," XII (1855), 192. 

3 Vide Edwards, II, 286. 

128 .RALEGH AN A. 

she remained a widow, and died in 1647, "thus witnessing 
the ruin of the dynasty which had destroyed her own 
happiness." 1 

One remembrance of her husband requires to be noticed. 
There is in the possession of the Duke of Eutland at Belvoir 
Castle a brooch, of oval shape, about 21 in. in its long axis, 
with an enamelled surface, on which are the letters "W, ER." 
(for "Walter and Elizabeth Ealegh), with a heart and other 
emblems. The case of the brooch holds two posthumously 
painted miniatures of her husband and of her son Walter, 
who was killed at St. Thomas, and below each respectively 
a representation of Ealegh's fleet at Guiana and the storm- 
ing of St. Thomas. It, in all probability, dates soon after 
Ealegh's execution, and was kept by his widow until her 
death. 2 A facsimile of the miniature of Sir Walter forms 
the frontispiece to his " Life " by W. Stebbing, published in 

The remainder of Lady Ealegh's long widowhood was 
spent in retirement. Excepting that in January, 1621, she 
appended her signature and her seal to a deed, 3 we know 
literally nothing of the remainder of her life. Dying in 
1 647, not only is the place of her interment unknown, but 
we possess no clue even to its probable site. True is it that 
she desired " to be berred " by the side of her husband in 
Beddington Church. This wish she expressed in 1618, but 
in the year she died (1647) it was apparently not carried 
out either at Beddington or in St. Margaret's Church. 

The Rev. T. Bentham, of Croydon, who was formerly of 
Beddington, kindly examined the registers of the latter 
church, and from him I obtained the following information. 
Here is a transcript from the baptismal register: "Ap. 16, 
1565. Elizabeth Throgmorton, baptized." This was the 
lady who married Sir Walter in 1592; she was then about 
twenty-five years of age and he fifty. She was fifty- two at 
the time of his execution, and she died when eighty-one 
years old — in 1647. 

In Beddington Church is a tomb containing an inscrip- 
tion, from which the following portion is taken : — 

"Here resteth Sir Francis Carew, Knight, sonne and 
heire of Sir Nicholas Carew, Knight. . . . The said Sir 
Francis living unmarried, adopted Sir Nicholas Throck- 

1 Gosso, 222. 

- Illustrations of them will be found in Williamson's "History of 
Portrait Miniatures," Vol. I, Plate XVI. 

3 "Raleigh Pedigree," by J. L. Laurence, pr. pr., 1869. 


morton, sonne of Anne Throckmorton, his sister, to be 
heire of his estate, and to beare his surname ; and having 
lived lxxxi yeares, he in assured hope to rise in 
Christ ended his transitory life the xvi day of May 

This inscription is important to bear in mind in the quest 
for information respecting the burial place of Lady Ealegh, 
and for this reason : the burial register of the same church 
contains this entry: "Jan. 20, 1640. Elizabeth Carew 
was buried." 2 This, it has been suggested, records the 
burial of Lady Ealegh, but this must be an error, unless we 
suppose the registrar substituted " Carew " for " Ealegh." 
The year antedates that given by Oldys by seven years. 
Then Sir Walter's wife never had the name of Carew : she 
was born a Throgmorton ; her name is so recorded in the 
baptismal register of the same church, and she retained 
that name until she married Ealegh. We are therefore 
forced to conclude the entry quoted does not refer to her, 
and we have to fall back on the statement that the place of 
her interment is yet unknown. If one might offer a conjec- 
ture, or express a wish on the subject, it would be that at 
some day in the future it may, after all, be proved that her 
body had, perhaps surreptitiously, found a resting-place 
beside that of her husband. 

That Lady Ealegh retained possession of her husband's 
head until her death, when it passed into the care of her 
son Carew, is certain. " After her death," notes Oldys, " it 
was kept also by her son Carew, with whom it is said to 
have been buried " (564). 3 

In 1680 Aubrey records: — 

"Mr. Elias Ashmole told me that Sir Walter's son Carew 
Ealegh told him he had his father's skull ; that some years since, 
upon digging up the grave, his skull and neck-bone being viewed, 
they found the bone of his neck lapped over so that he could not 

1 Brayley and Britton's "Surrey," IV, 64. In II, 76, Sir Francis is 
stated to have died in 1607. 

2 Since the foregoing was written, the pedigree of the Carew family, con- 
tained in Lysons' "Environs of London," I, 53, has been examined, which 
shows that Elizabeth Carew, who died in 1640, was a daughter of Francis, 
son and heir of Sir Nicholas Carew (nee Throgmorton), and was therefore 
the grandniece of Lady Ralegh. 

3 A curious and erroneous assertion made by Mr. Barrett in his " Surrey 
Highways, etc." (1895), maybe corrected here. He states that "Raleigh's 
only [sic] legitimate son by her [Elizabeth, his wife] named Carew was born 
in the Tower of London " (54). His elder brother, Walter, who was killed in 
Guiana, was certainly equally legitimate. 


have been hanged. Quaere Sir John Elowys (Ellis) for the skull, 
who married Mr. Carew Ralegh's daughter and heire " (II, 189). 

The whole of this paragraph is omitted from the earlier 
edition of Aubrey's work, published in 1813. As Carew 
died in December, 1666, Ashmole must have received his 
information prior to that date. The remainder of the 
paragraph evidently does not refer to Carew, but accords 
with the prevailing tradition that his father's head was 
interred at West Horsley. The skull found in 1703, as 
related by Oldys, was probably a rediscovery. 

In his "Court of King James" (1830) Bishop Goodman 
remarks : — 

"No man doth honour the memory of Sir Walter Raleigh and 
his excellent parts more than myself ; and in token thereof I know 
where his skull is kept to this day, and I have kissed it " (I, 69). 

He could not have shown greater reverence for it had it 
been the head of a saint. Some have assigned this letter to 
some period prior to the death of Lady Ralegh, but there 
is greater reason to believe it to belong to a later date. 

On the death of his uncle, Sir Nicholas Carew (Lady 
Ralegh's brother), in 1643, Carew Ralegh succeeded to the 
West Horsley estate. His eldest son, Sir Walter, knighted 
in 1660, died in the same year, whose son survived him 
only a few months. The circumstance of this Sir Walter 
having been buried at West Horsley probably gave rise to 
the suggestion that the remains found there were those of 
Carew's father, Lady Ralegh's husband. However much 
authors differ as to the place where Carew's body was buried, 
they agree that his father's head was interred with it (Oldys, 
565). In 1665 Carew sold the estate to Sir E. Nicholas; 
he then went to London and resided in St. Martin's Lane, 
where he died at the close of the year following. His 
remains were interred in the chancel of St. Margaret's 
Church, Westminster, according to the entry in the burial 
register— " 1666 [7] Jan. 1 Carew Rawleigh, Esq., Kild. 
M. chancel" 1 — of which the accompanying illustration is 
a facsimile. 

Carew Ralegh, the son of the great Sir Walter, is affirmed 
in Foster's "Alumni Oxon" (copied from Manning and Bray's 
" Surrey," III, 40) as " Buried in West Horsley, Surrey, 
Sept., 1680." But Carew died in 1666, and his son of the 
same name in 1660. 

1 Of the probable cause of his death, vide " D.A.," XXXVIII, 309. 


It is an open question whether the body of Carew was 
deposited alongside that of his father ; both Aubrey (II, 193) 
and Wood assert that it was. But if the " M. chancel " in 
the entry of the register denotes the middle of the latter, 
it could not have been, as that of Sir Walter was buried 
adjacent to the altar. However, the remains of both may 
be included in the great vault under the chancel, already 
mentioned. Most probably the head of the latter was 
interred with the remains of the son ; and although this is 
simply conjectural, it accords with "a tradition handed 
down from rector to rector of St. Margaret's . . . that the dis- 
severed head was buried in the same grave with the body of 
his son, Carew Ealeigh " (Mrs. Sinclair, 30). Certain is it 
that after Carew's death we hear no more about the head ; 
although an attempt to discover it was made a few years 
since, as thus recorded in the " Life of Dean Farrar," by his 
son (1894):— 

11 Bishop Montgomery, late of Tasmania, a former curate of the 
Dean, writes : ' The church (St. Margaret's) was shut for about a 
year, while the work of restoration went on. ... I remember 
spending an evening with the Abbey clerk of works in a vault 
under the altar trying to find Raleigh's head, but without 

In an article " On the head of Simon of Sudbury, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury," the Rev. Dr. Sparrow Simpson 
enumerates several other heads of decapitated persons that 
were subsequently preserved separately from their bodies. 1 

Ko stone or other indication points out the actual site of 
Sir Walter's grave, notwithstanding the assertion of Edwards 
(I, 706) of the spot being marked "by the armorial bearings 
of its tenant," for which he mentions no authority. More- 
over, it is directly opposed to the statement of Aubrey that 
" Ealeigh hath neither stone nor inscription" (II, 193). 
Tytler ascribes it " to the destitution in which Lady Ealeigh 
and her son were left, or to the fear they felt of drawing 
down the further indignation of the monarch " (426). The 
latter is probably the true reason, for James evidently 
favoured the obliteration of everything relating to Ealegh ; 
otherwise we may feel assured the friends of the latter 
would have adorned his burial place with a memorial of 
some kind but for the marked disapproval of the King and 
Court. They were not allowed to befriend him during his 

1 " Jonrn. of Brit. Arclueol. Assoc." for June, 1895. Fide also " N. and 
Q.," 8th Ser. VIII, 242. 


life, 1 or to praise his memory after his death. John Ford, 
the dramatist, a native of Devon, published his "Linea 
vitse . . . Pointing out the Immortalitie of a Vertuous 
Name," in 1620 (reprinted in Vol. VII of the Shakespeare 
Society's works in 1845). A portion of the original MS. 
contained so favourable an account of Ralegh's character, 
and especially as to the manner in which he met his death, 
as to cause it to be obliterated by the censor. There is a 
copy of this MS. in Lansdowne MSS., 350, Ser. 4, in which 
the suppressed portion is given at length ; a reprint of it 
will be found in the "Western Antiquary," V, 51. 

Although the majority of Ealegh's literary works were 
written during the reign of James I, none were printed (or 
were allowed to be) while that monarch was alive, with one 
exception, that of his "History of the World," but even 
this was ordered to be suppressed, fortunately without 
success. And yet, a month after the execution, the King 
was obliged to attempt to appease the general indignation 
by issuing that " plausible palliation " the " Declaration," in 
which he endeavoured to mislead the public — a public that 
would not be misled — by omitting all direct and indirect 
reference to the true cause why he had sacrificed Ralegh, 
and in substituting a false one; and yet, as a kind of 
counterblast, and issued almost simultaneously with it, the 
real reason is acknowledged in that remarkable letter penned 
by Buckingham, 2 which gave the direct lie to the special 
pleading of the King's manifesto. This letter to the 
English Ambassador at the Spanish Court bears ample 
testimony to the great and grievous mistake he (the King) 
must have felt he had committed, in fruitlessly getting rid 
of Ralegh in so summary a manner at the dictation of 
the Spanish Court. If James experienced any feelings of 
remorse for the act, and most probably he did, he certainly 
stirled them, by avoiding, and by causing all others to do so 
as far as he was able, all reference ■ to the name and person 
of Ralegh. It was, therefore, no matter of surprise that on 
a later occasion, when an attempt was made to introduce 
Carew Ralegh to Court, " his likeness to Ralegh awoke a 
pang of remorse in the bosom of the monarch, and James, 
turning away from him, observed that 'he looked like his 
father's ghost.' Warned by this, Carew took the advice of 
his kinsman, the Earl of Pembroke, and retired to the 
Continent till the beginning of a new reign." 3 

1 "D.A.," XXXVIII, 474. a Ibid., 464-5. 

3 Tytler, 434, from Carew Ralegh's " Petition.'' Vide Birch, I, cxvin-ix. 



Pennant, in his "London" (first published in 1790), was 
apparently the earliest author to allude to the absence of 
any memorial in St. Margaret's Church, where " the remains 
of the great Sir Walter Raleigh " were interred " on the 
same day on which he was beheaded." He added, " It was 
left to a sensible churchwarden to inform us of the fact, 
who inscribed it on a board about twenty years ago " ; this 
would be c. 1770 (ed. 1813, I, 124). 

According to an entry in Manning and Bray's " Surrey " 
(III, 40), published in 1814, this wooden tablet still retained 
its place ; but some time after that date, year unknown, there 
was substituted for it 

" A memorial of ' plain tin or copper with a frame, painted blue 
with gilt letters,' which was replaced in 1815 by an elegant mural 
tablet, with a brass plate, at the expense of several subscribers " 
(Walcott, 112). 

This tablet yet remains, and will be found at the east end 
of the south aisle on the north wall, separating the latter 
from the chancel, and in a rather dark corner, adjoining the 
south-east entrance. It consists of a highly-decorated and 
sculptured stone frame surrounding a metal plate contain- 
ing this inscription : — 

" Within the Chancel of this Church was interred 

The Body of the 

Great Sir Walter Raleigh K* 

On the day he was beheaded 

in Old Palace Yard, Westminster, 

Oct. 29 th An Dom. 1618. 

Reader — Should you reflect on his errors, 

Remember his many Virtues, 

And that he was a Mortal.'"' x 

The supposed arms of Sir Walter are emblazoned in the 
centre of the upper part of the frame: Gules, seven lozenges 
in lend, argent — the proper arms being five fusils in bend. 
The name appears as " Raleigh," a form never used by him 
— it should be " Ralegh." Very little can be urged in jpraise 
of its commonplace inscription, to remember his "Virtues 
as well as his faults — a plea, surely, that every man might 
well wish should be made for him at last." 2 

" No better epitaph," remarks Gardiner, " could be found 
to inscribe upon Raleigh's tomb" than his words to the 

1 Vide illustration. 

2 L. Hutton, " Literary Landmarks of London," 252 (1S85). 


executioner : " No matter how the head lie, so the heart be 
right" (III, 152). His own writings would furnish one 
equally good, e.g. the beautiful lines forming a prose poem 
at the end of his "History of the World," commencing: "0 
eloquent, just and mighty Death." But perhaps the last lines 
that were probably penned by him, and were found in his 
Bible after he had been executed, would be the most appro- 
priate, especially as they contain the expression of his hope 
in the resurrection. The earliest printed version known is 
that in the small tablet, " To day a man, etc.," published in 
1644, from which it is now transcribed: — 

" Even such is time, which takes in trust 
Our youth, our age, and all Ave have, 
And payes us but with age and dust, 
Who in the darke and silent grave, 
When we have wami'red all our wayes 
Shuts up the story of our dayes. 

And from the earth, the grave, and dust, 
The Lord shall raise me up, I trust." 

It is noteworthy that the most important lines — the last 
two — are omitted by Walcott (275). 

The great east window, which sheds its light on the site 
where Ralegh was buried, has an interesting history (vide 
illustration). It was the gift to Henry YII by the magis- 
trates of Dort on the occasion of the projected marriage of 
his son Prince Arthur with the Princess Catharine of Ara- 
gon. Some delay took place, and it was not received in 
England until after the death of that prince. It came into 
the possession of Henry VIII, but was not used by him, and 
after his divorce from Catharine it passed into the hands of 
the Abbot of AValtham. At the Dissolution it was sent to 
Boreham, and after changing proprietorship several times it 
was bought by General Monk, who concealed it from the 
Puritans. At the Restoration Monk had it fixed in his 
chapel at Xew Hall. Subsequently it was bought by a Mr. J. 
Conyers, who sold it, in 1758, to St. Margaret's Church for 
400 guineas, and it was then fixed in its present position. 
Some time afterwards a suit was instituted, in the name of 
Daniel Gell (the Registrar of the Ecclesiastical Court of the 
Dean and Chapter), against the churchwardens, on the 
grounds of the window containing a " superstitious image or 
picture"; but after it had lasted several years it terminated 
in favour of the wardens, and the window remained undis- 
turbed. 1 This action led to the publication in 1761 of a 

1 Walcott, 103-4. 


curious quarto work, entitled " The Ornaments of Churches 
Considered," written, according to Dr. Oliver, by the Kev. W. 
Hole, Archdeacon of Barnstaple, but attributed by others to 
Thos. Wilson, d.d. According to a paragraph in the " Life of 
Dean Farrar " (224-5), the suit was instituted by the Dean 
and Chapter " to recover what they considered, perhaps not 
unjustly, to be their property." 

During the most recent alterations, etc., in the church the 
floor of the chancel and of the aisles was paved with encaustic 
tiles, thereby obliterating any vestiges that remained of the 
memorials of those whose bodies had been interred there — 
such memorials, that is to say, as formed portions of the 
floor. A similar plan was pursued at the church of Clyst 
St. George, near Topsham, by the rector, the Eev. H. T. 
Ellacombe (the well-known campanologist), with the follow- 
ing variations, as recorded by him — 

11 In the nave and aisle, tiles twelve inches square, laid at 
intervals and intermixed with others of divers colours, are 
encaustically inscribed with memorial records of persons long ago 
buried underneath, and whose names are almost obliterated from 
the much- worn tombstones." * 

The only memorials of Sir Walter Kalegh in England 
consist of the following : — 

1. Guildhall, Plymouth. — A four-light stained-glass win- 
dow, the gift of Mr. C. F. Tanner, represents Kalegh and his 
companions leaving Plymouth to embark on board his ship, 
"The Destiny." The fleet of seven ships and three pin- 
naces left that port on June 13, 1617, on his second voyage 
to Guiana. 2 Shortly before his departure he was enter- 
tained by the municipal authorities, of which a few particu- 
lars are thus noted in the Municipal Kecords : — 


' Allowed M r Kobert Trelawnye beinge Mayor for 
entertayninge S r Walter Rawley and his followers 
at his house w c h was done by grail consente . ix h ' 
" Sir John Duckhame, Chancellor of the Duchy, entertained, his 
followers being lodged in M r Johnson's house. 

1 It. allowed for a pownde of Tobacco w c h was 
geven to S r John Duckhame .... viij s 
It. paid the drufiier for calling S r Walter Kau- 
leighs company aboord . . . . . xij d ' " 3 

1 "Trans. Exet. Dioc. Arch. Soc," I, 2nd Ser., 104. 

2 The illustrations of these windows are from photos kindly supplied by 
Mr. R. Hansford Worth, of Plymouth. 

3 "Calendar," R. N. Worth, 150 (1893). 



2. Council Chamber, Plymouth. — A two-light stained-glass 
window containing four full-length portraits. The upper 
left-hand one represents Sir W. Ealegh with an open book 
in his left hand, with this inscription at the base : — 

" Sir Walter Raleigh 
Introduced Tobacco into England." 

3. St. Margaret's Church, Westminster. — The great stained- 
glass west window. This was the gift of American citizens, 
and was unveiled on May 14, 1882, on which occasion the 
Eev. Canon (afterwards Dean) Farrar delivered an appro- 
priate sermon. The middle portion of each of the five lights 
contains a single standing figure ; that of Queen Elizabeth 
occupies the centre one. Prince Henry, Ealegh, Spenser, 
and Sir Humphrey Gilbert are depicted in the others. All 
have their respective coats-of-arms emblazoned above them. 
Various scenes in the life of Ealegh are delineated at the 
base. Two of the number show respectively his sailing for 
America and his landing there ; but these must be regarded 
in a symbolical sense, as Ealegh never visited North 
America. What he did was to send out his ships on a 
voyage of discovery, and on their return the captains 
reported to him how they found and landed on the coast of 
Virginia, on that part now known as North Carolina. 
Below these scenes is a quatrain written by J. E. Lowell, 
at that time the American Ambassador in England : — 

" The New World's sons, from England's breasts we drew 
Such milk as bids remember whence we came ; 
Proud of her Past, wherefrom our Present grew, 
This window we inscribe with Raleigh's name." 

A good description of it will be found in the " History, 
etc., of the Windows of the Parish Church of the House of 
Commons," by Mrs. Sinclair, pp. 26-30 (1895). 1 

Canon Farrar's sermon was printed for private circula- 
tion, and as it is almost unknown to bibliographers, the 
title, etc., are here given : — 

" Sir Walter Raleigh. A Sermon preached at St. Margaret's 
Church, Westminster, on May 13, 1882, at the unveiling of the 
1 raleigh window,' the gift of American Citizens. Published by 

"London: Printed at the 'Anglo-American Press,' 127, 
Strand, W." 

1 Vide an article by R. W. C[otton] in " Western Antiquary," II, 24-5. 

0K . I#i 

KAjP.^5JB mvF3£ul%£M 

1 I 
i 1 

1 1 







" vir H'ulfer\Kaleicd> 

i ii 


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Stained Glass Window, Council Chamber, Plymouth, 

Stained Glass Window, Guildhall, Plymouth, 


8vo, pp. 21, with a photo print of the window, and a pre- 
fatory letter from the author to [now Sir] J. H. Puleston, 
Esq., m.p., under whose direction it was printed for the 
members of the congregation. It is now very rare, and 
certainly deserves to be reprinted as an eloquent tribute to 
the memory of Ralegh as well as to the generous donors of 
such a beautiful window. 

These three public memorials, in Devonshire and in West- 
minster respectively, comprise, with the mural epitaph, all 
that are known to the writer as having been erected to honour 
the memory of one of the most illustrious Englishmen of 
the Elizabethan period. This neglect has been commented 
on by various writers ; thus S. Tymms called public attention 
to it in an article on St. Martin's Church printed in " The 
G-entleman's Magazine " December, 1824, p. 491. In this he 
expressed the hope that "a monument would have been 
erected [in it] worthy of the name of Raleigh." Again, in the 
following year, when the same writer recorded the erection of a 
tablet in that church "to the memory of William Caxton," he 
added, " there is another individual to whose virtues I trust 
a monument will be erected in this church — the murdered 
Sir Walter Raleigh — for the barbarous usage he experienced 
from the pedantic James can only be atoned by a national 
monument thus recording the injustice of his execution." 1 
When the great west window was unveiled the Canon 
remarked (in the sermon already noticed) : — 

" It is strange to me that one paltry tablet should hitherto have 
been almost the only memorial of such a man. The fact of the 
only great and worthy memorial in England being due to American 
citizens does not redound to the credit of the English people." 

In the same sermon the Canon thus relates how the gift came 
to be made : — 

" I had but to mention to one or two American gentlemen that 
the man who named and colonized Virginia lies almost unrecorded 
here, and they, with the ready munificence which marks their nation, 
and which is certainly one of the lessons which we may learn from 
our kin beyond the sea, at once, and without any toil or anxiety 
of mind, gave the £600 which that window required." 

In several ways the Americans have done honour to the 
memory of Ralegh in their own country. The city of North 
Carolina was named after him. This evidently accorded with 

1 "Gent.'s Magazine," 198-9, March, 1825. 


his own wish, as John White, the governor of the new 
colony, took with him in the fourth voyage, in 1587, a charter 
addressed to "the Governour and Assistants of the Gitie of 
Ealegh in Virginia." * Nine or ten other places in various 
parts of the States also bear his name. The writer is 
informed that some ten years since there was "erected a 
memorial on the site of the old Fort Ealeigh, Eoanoke Island, 
to commemorate the first English settlement in America. It 
bears the following inscription: ' On this site, in August, 1583, 
the colonists sent from England by Sir Walter Ealeigh built 
a fort called New Fort, in Virginia.' " 2 

Although there are several parishes, etc., in England bear- 
ing the name of Ealegh, all, without exception, were so 
designated several centuries prior to the birth of Sir Walter. 

Old Fuller said of him he was " Dexterous ... in all his 
undertakings, in Court, in Camp, By Sea, by Land, with 
Sword, with Pen"; 3 but (apart from his "History of the 
World ") his claim to the gratitude of posterity consists in his 
repeated endeavours, undaunted by failures, to found a per- 
manent colony in Virginia. Towards this object his first char- 
ter, " For the Discovery and Planting of New Lands and Coun- 
tries," was granted him, and bears date March 25, 1584 4 To 
this project he devoted much time, and sent out several expedi- 
tions at his own cost. In the second expedition (1585-6) he 
commissioned Thomas Hariot, one of the leading scientific 
men of the day, to accompany it, so that from personal inquiry, 
etc., he would be able to report to him " Of the Commodities, 
and of the Nature and Manners of the Naturall Inhabitants " ; 
this was published in 1588, and still excites our wonder and 
admiration at its completeness. Although his untiring efforts 
were unsuccessful during the reign of Elizabeth, they were 
the foundations upon which the subsequent permanent settle- 
ment of the colonists was founded in the year 1609 or 1610, 
while Ealegh was a prisoner in the Tower. Before the end 
of James's reign (1625) the colony had become a prosperous 
one. As already pointed out, Ealegh's energetic exertions 
in this direction have been fully recognized and appreciated 
by the Americans. 5 

It has been otherwise the case in England, although it 

1 Ilakluyfs " Voyages," XIII, 358 (1889). 

2 Information obtained through the kindness of Professor G. E. Wood- 
berry, of Beverly, Massachusetts. 

8 "Worthies," 262 (1662). Cf. Wood, II, 240. 

4 Cayley, "Life of Sir Walter Raleigh," II, 253-60 (1806). 

5 Vide "Sir Walter Ralegh and his Colony in America" (Boston, 1884), 
one of the principal works of the Prince Society. 



would naturally be thought that some public acknowledgment 
of his labours would at least be found in the Colonial Office. 
But neither there nor in any place in London, except St. 
Margaret's Church, Westminster, is a memorial to him of any 
kind to be found. It is affirmed that his landing in Virginia 
was to have formed the subject of one of the frescoes where- 
with to adorn the Houses of Parliament ; fortunately, this 
was not carried into execution, as, for the reason already 
given, it would in all probability have become the subject 
of one of " Punch's " cartoons. 

It has been the custom in recent years to affix to houses 
(or to those erected on their sites) tablets inscribed with 
the names of celebrated persons who have occupied them, 
as in this example : — 

11 The London County Council have decided that the residence 
of Sir Charles Lyell and, at a later date, of Gladstone, at a house 
recently demolished, on the site of which No. 73 Harley Street, 
W., now stands, shall be commemorated by a tablet." 1 

Durham House, Strand, was occupied by Ealegh during 
the last twenty years of Elizabeth's reign. It was pulled 
down in the early part of the seventeenth century, and the 
present Adelphi Buildings were erected on its site. Should 
not this be considered a fitting place for a tablet whereon to 
commemorate Sir Walter's long residence there ? Another 
building worthy of a similar tablet is that of his birthplace, 
Hayes Barton, in the parish of East Budleigh, Devonshire. 
The building remains in much the same state as when he lived 
there, about 350 years since. His own letter, recording he 
" was borne in that howse," has found an excellent resting- 
place in the Boyal Albert Memorial Museum, Exeter. 

One can scarcely omit a brief passing notice of Sir J. 
Millais' beautiful painting of "The Boyhood of Ealegh " 
that was exhibited at the Eoyal Academy in 1870, and 
which, through the munificence of Lady Tate, has found a 
home in the Tate Gallery. It was painted in a house ad- 
jacent to the beach at Budleigh Salterton (which must have 
been frequently visited by Ealegh), and is believed to be the 
only Devonshire subject painted by that eminent man. 2 

Ealegh was a true patriot, " confident in the prowess of 
his country, and keenly sensitive to her honour. . . . Had 
his wish been fulfilled he would have explored wherever 

1 ' ; Athenanim," December 1, 1906. 

2 An account of it is printed in " Devon N. & Q.," I, 97-101 (1900), with 
an illustration of his studio. 


colonization held out hopes of prosperous settlement." x He 
sacrificed time and money in his endeavours to establish the 
English in Virginia ; and it was wholly owing to his exer- 
tions that the colony subsequently attained its great success. 
In America his memory has been honoured in many ways, 
in remarkable contrast to the marked neglect it has experi- 
enced in this country. "Great nations," remarked Canon 
Farrar, " should have more pride in their few great sons." 
This has recently received ample illustration in a letter by 
Lord Curzon that appeared in " The Times " of April 8, 1907, 
in which he advocated the erection of a public memorial in 
England in commemoration of the great work effected by 
Lord Clive in India. His arguments and remarks form a 
striking parallel to those that may be advanced to advocate 
the claims of Ealegh to be honoured in a similar manner. 
He wrote : — 

" I need not urge the case for a memorial to Lord Clive. 
Though his life was passed amid startling vicissitudes of fortune, 
and went out in tempestuous gloom, it was a life of pre-eminent 
service, of dazzling achievement, and of eternal renown ; and yet 
his grave is 'unmarked by slab or monument.'" 

Not a word of all this requires to be altered in its applica- 
bility to Sir Walter Ealegh, one of the greatest of the 
worthies of Elizabethan England, whose unselfish aim was 
to promote the greatness and the welfare of his native 

1 A. C. Ewald, "Studies Restudied," 205 (1885). 



Mural Tablet, 
St, Margaret's Church, "Westminster.